Hetepsekhemwy Monuments

The first pharaoh of the 2nd Dynasty. Hotepsekhemwy reigned for over 30 years sometime roughly 2890 B.C., but modern scholars know very little about him.

Hetepsekhemwy tomb at Saqqara:

The subterraneous structure conceived to be the oldest second Dynasty royal grave at Saqqara is placed at what is now known as the Unas cemetery. Depart of its galleries are even placed underneath the Unas Pyramid and it's storming that 5th Dynasty tomb-builders didn't accidentaly bumble upon it.

Hotepsekhemwy's tomb under the pyramid of Unas in Saqqara
Seal beliefs discovered inside the bodily structure and showing the Horus names of Hotepsekhemwi and his heir Reneb can mean one of 2 things either the tomb was constructed for and used by Hotepsekhemwi and Reneb left his cachet impressions when he entombed his predecessor, and bestowed the demanded funerary offerings or it was designated for Hotepsekhemwi but is was arrogated by Reneb.

The latter of these 2 hypotheses seems to be the littlest likely, so it is generally agreed that this tomb consisted to Hotepsekhemwi.

With its north-south axis crossing a length of about 120 meters and its width of about fifty metres, it's also improbable that the tomb was made for a non-royal person: the biggest non-royal tombs of the betimes Dynastic Period or the Old Kingdom are substantially smaller. And opposed to the Archaic graves in Saqqara-North, no individual names seem to have been found in that tomb.

Tomb of Hotepsekhemwy
The enamor to the tomb is placed northerly, a feature that would be coarse to the royal graves of the Old Kingdom. From the enamor, a long 4 metre high enactment, built in an open deep covered with huge blocks of stone, comes deeper into the Saqqara rock. A few metres into this enactment, a doorway affords upon a corridor to the west. A little further down, a 2nd door gives accession to a corridor to the east. On each face of both corridors are 7 long and constrict rooms that are construed as magazines.

Barely before the cardinal corridor discontinues to deign, a large portcullis slab, built of granite, was designated to block the further passage. Afterward that, the corridor continues horizontally and was barred by 3 more portcullises. More cartridges open onto the east and the west of this corridor. After almost 35 meters, the cap of the corridor is depressed to some two meters and the corridor gets subterraneous.

To the east and Occident of the central corridor, astonish of magazines carries on to unfold, until at length, at about 110 metres from the entrance, the burial chamber was discovered ... empty.

If these tomb always had a superstructure, nothing rests of it. But it's very likely that the superstructure was absented for the building of the pyramid and dead room tomb of Unas, some five hundred years later, if they even endured that long.

King Djer Monuments

Djer was the 2nd king on the first Dynasty, as the crown still domiciled at Memphis.


King Djer Monuments:

King Djer burial place at Abydos. His tomb at abydos tomb (o) comprises 300 accessory burials, but weest of Aha; constituted of brick seventy in forty metres. Tomb conceived to apply Osiris and centering of pilgrimages.

In the Om El- Gaab part tomb considered to hold Osiris and centering of pilgrimages. Later on mistaken for the grave of Osiris. It was ascertained by "Emile Amelineau" in 1895 with a 5 year abbreviate for dig. He was a hapless archeaologist,  believably he got the abbreviate since he was friends with the conductor of the Egyptian Antiquities Service in El Qahira and ascertained the “grave of Osiris” in Om El- Gaab, an field simply affluent with artifacts. He totally cleared the grave between Jan 1 and Jan 12th, casting aside whole bundles of artifacts and continuing only accomplished objects. Most affairs were simply brushed aside if the felt up them of no value.l

He discovered a basalt statue on a bier (alike to the funerary couch of Tut) in the grave, and a skull in single chamber.  He adjudicated "quite haphazardly, based on the stiarcase" that this was athe grave of Osiris himself, and the skull was that of the deity  or in his aspect, a admittedly historical anatomy. The skull was later described as that of a charwoman,but this didn't alter Emile’s view. Amelineau was put back by Petrie in 1900, when Maspero absorbed the directorship of the Egyptian ancientnesses Service. Petrie is regoznied as among the beset archeaologists of the time and he totally re-excavated the graves.

He discovered much that Amelineau had overlookd admitting an arm still adorned with jewellery. Petrie acquired to volumes of contingents about ht domiciliation these volumes got the example for future archeaological act. It was ascertained that h grave had been mofidied to act as the tomb of Osiris – in the thirteenth dynasty by Khendjer. The stiarcase had been appended for the conveneicne of the tourers and pilgrims. The tomb is alike to others in the area, with chambers delve the base and roofed over. The chief room was believably floord with wood, but just carbonzied timber continued when dug.

A lot of accessory graves of human considerations. Later burials would put back the human forfeits with shabti figures  Some of the subsidiary tombs bordered a funerary enclosing which also consisted to the king, and may have arrested a mortuary temple, since a considerable period ended.

Monuments of Menes

His grave at abydos, three brick-lined chambers roofed with woods
Constructed temple to Nit at Sais

Menes burial lay at Abydos. His grave has 33 accessory burials arresting men between 20 and 25 years old and 7 young lions. Primitively thought 3 apart tombs, broadened over time.

Late appraises by German team associated the chambers below a exclusive roof walls one and half to two meter blockheaded. Tomb eleven in nine meter. Also there are graves to the east perhaps his officials and noblemen.
Menes in Petrie


King Menes constituted the city of Memphis, and decided as its placement an island in the River Nile, so that it aspiring easy to champion. He was also the beginner of Crocodopolis. On his time, the Egyptian army executed raids versus the Nubians to the south and added to his sphere as far as the first cataract.

His boss wife was Queen Berenib, although she wasn't the mother of his heritor, Djer, and his mother was Neithotepe. His decease is a secret, for, agreeing to legend he was aggressed by wild dogs and River Nile crocodiles in El-faiyum . Menes' tomb domiciles at Saqqara, the famous necropolis of Memphis. He became flat at the age of 63.